Seven steps toward financial security
To be ‘wealthy,’ you just have to insulate from shocks that could send you down the economic ladder
21 Nov 2016
LIZ WESTON THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
Financial security isn’t a number or a threshold. It has to do with what you spend, and save, relative to your income.
Nothing proves that quite like research on millionaires by wealth management firm UBS. Sixty per cent of those with more than $5 million (U.S.) defined themselves as wealthy, compared with 28 per cent of those worth $1 million to $5 million. Yet what millionaires mean by “wealthy” is not necessarily financial independence: Only 10 per cent defined wealthy as not having to work. It’s not even a number; only 16 per cent said surpassing a certain asset threshold automatically made you rich. The majority said the whole point of building wealth was achieving financial security, where a single setback isn’t likely to plunge them into the ranks of the not-rich.
Half of those worth $1 million to $5 million believed that one bad break, such as a market crash or a job loss, would have a major impact on their lifestyle. Only 34 per cent of those with more than $5 million felt the same.
You don’t have a million-dollar lifestyle to protect, but financial security for the middle class is achieved in exactly the same way.
As soon as you spend less than you earn, then save the surplus, you’ve made a start. You’re inching away from the financial edge and insulating yourself from shocks that could send you down the economic ladder.
Over time, you keep building that cushion while insuring yourself against catastrophic expenses that could wipe out what you’ve saved. Eventually, you can achieve financial independence, where your income in retirement is sufficient to cover your expenses and some extras.
Here’s how you do it:
Start with a small emergency fund: You don’t need much to begin — $500 is enough to cover many unwelcome expenses, such as a small car repair. If an expense drains your fund, build it up again so it’s ready for the next setback. You can’t build security without a way to deal with the unexpected.
Pay off toxic debt: Credit card debt is expensive. Payday and auto title loans are much worse. If you can’t see how to pay off your high-rate debt within five years, consult a cred- it counsellor and a bankruptcy attorney about your options.
Limit your overhead: Keep your must-have expenses — shelter, utilities, food, transportation, insurance, minimum loan payments — to 50 per cent or less of your after-tax income. A smaller “nut” also makes it easier to pay your bills should you lose your job or be unable to work.
Invest in your future, year in and year out: Take full advantage of any company match you’re offered in a workplace retirement plan.
Insure against catastrophe: Disability insurance can replace your income if you can’t work. Life insurance protects your dependants. Liability insurance can cover lawsuits that might otherwise wipe you out. As you accumulate wealth, make sure you increase the liability limits on your home and auto insurance to at least equal your net worth.
Build your emergency fund: Once you’ve paid off bad debt and gotten on track with retirement, focus on boosting your emergency fund. Your first goal can be three months’ worth of those must-have expenses.
Retire your mortgage: Having a paid-for home by the time you retire won’t just help you sleep better at night. It also means you don’t have to withdraw as much from your retirement funds, since you’re not making mortgage payments. A lower withdrawal rate can make your savings last longer.